• Food safety and zoonotic enteric pathogens: sources, risk factors and transmission routes of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis
  • Mughini Gras, Lapo <1984>


  • VET/04 Ispezione degli alimenti di origine animale


  • Salmonella and Campylobacter are common causes of human gastroenteritis. Their epidemiology is complex and a multi-tiered approach to control is needed, taking into account the different reservoirs, pathways and risk factors. In this thesis, trends in human gastroenteritis and food-borne outbreak notifications in Italy were explored. Moreover, the improved sensitivity of two recently-implemented regional surveillance systems in Lombardy and Piedmont was evidenced, providing a basis for improving notification at the national level. Trends in human Salmonella serovars were explored: serovars Enteritidis and Infantis decreased, Typhimurium remained stable and 4,[5],12:i:-, Derby and Napoli increased, suggesting that sources of infection have changed over time. Attribution analysis identified pigs as the main source of human salmonellosis in Italy, accounting for 43–60% of infections, followed by Gallus gallus (18–34%). Attributions to pigs and Gallus gallus showed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively. Potential bias and sampling issues related to the use of non-local/non-recent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data in Campylobacter jejuni/coli source attribution using the Asymmetric Island (AI) model were investigated. As MLST data become increasingly dissimilar with increasing geographical/temporal distance, attributions to sources not sampled close to human cases can be underestimated. A combined case-control and source attribution analysis was developed to investigate risk factors for human Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection of chicken, ruminant, environmental, pet and exotic origin in The Netherlands. Most infections (~87%) were attributed to chicken and cattle. Individuals infected from different reservoirs had different associated risk factors: chicken consumption increased the risk for chicken-attributed infections; animal contact, barbecuing, tripe consumption, and never/seldom chicken consumption increased that for ruminant-attributed infections; game consumption and attending swimming pools increased that for environment-attributed infections; and dog ownership increased that for environment- and pet-attributed infections. Person-to-person contacts around holiday periods were risk factors for infections with exotic strains, putatively introduced by returning travellers.


  • 2013-04-19


  • Doctoral Thesis
  • PeerReviewed


  • application/pdf



Mughini Gras, Lapo (2013) Food safety and zoonotic enteric pathogens: sources, risk factors and transmission routes of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze degli alimenti, nutrizione animale e sicurezza alimentare , 25 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/5424.