• The dark side of the board: advances in chess Kriegspiel
  • Favini, Gian - Piero <1981>


  • INF/01 Informatica


  • While imperfect information games are an excellent model of real-world problems and tasks, they are often difficult for computer programs to play at a high level of proficiency, especially if they involve major uncertainty and a very large state space. Kriegspiel, a variant of chess making it similar to a wargame, is a perfect example: while the game was studied for decades from a game-theoretical viewpoint, it was only very recently that the first practical algorithms for playing it began to appear. This thesis presents, documents and tests a multi-sided effort towards making a strong Kriegspiel player, using heuristic searching, retrograde analysis and Monte Carlo tree search algorithms to achieve increasingly higher levels of play. The resulting program is currently the strongest computer player in the world and plays at an above-average human level.


  • 2010-05-05


  • Doctoral Thesis
  • PeerReviewed


  • application/pdf



Favini, Gian - Piero (2010) The dark side of the board: advances in chess Kriegspiel, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Informatica , 22 Ciclo. DOI 10.6092/unibo/amsdottorato/2403.