• Assessment of molecular sequences and enzyme activity of amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) from a selection of ancient and modern grains
  • Simonetti, Emanuela <1976>


  • AGR/02 Agronomia e coltivazioni erbacee


  • Wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are a family of wheat proteins, which play an important role in plant defence against pest attacks. ATIs are also of great interest for their impact on human health and recently ATIs have been identified as major stimulators of innate immune cells. In this study, ten selected wheat samples with different ploidy level and year of release were used for the agronomic trial, for in vitro enzymatic assays and for ATIs gene sequencing. Wheat samples were grown under organic farming management during three consecutive cropping years at two growing areas (Italy and USA). The PCA analysis performed on the deduced amino acid sequences of four representative ATIs genes (WMAI, WDAI, WTAI-CM3, CMx) evidenced that the ten wheat varieties can be differentiated on the basis of their ploidy level, but not with respect to ancient or recently developed wheat genotypes. The results from in vitro alpha-amylase and trypsin inhibitory activities showed high variability among the ten wheat genotypes and the contribution of the genotype and the cropping year was significant for both inhibitory activities. The hexaploid wheat genotypes showed the highest inhibitory activities. Einkorn showed a very low or even absent alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and the highest trypsin inhibitory activity. It was not possible to differentiate ancient and recently developed wheat genotypes on the basis of their ATIs activity. The weather conditions differently affected the two inhibitory activities. In both cultivation areas, higher precipitation and lower high mean temperatures correlated with lower alpha-amylase inhibitory activities, while there were different correlations considering trypsin inhibitory activity for the two growing areas. The protein content negatively correlated with both inhibitory activities in USA and Italy. This information can be important in the understanding of plant defence mechanisms in relation to the effect of both genotype and abiotic and biotic stress.


  • 2020-04-01


  • Doctoral Thesis
  • PeerReviewed


  • application/pdf



Simonetti, Emanuela (2020) Assessment of molecular sequences and enzyme activity of amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) from a selection of ancient and modern grains, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Scienze e tecnologie agrarie, ambientali e alimentari , 32 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/9202.