• Appropriate technologies and natural systems for wastewater treatment in low- and middle-income countries
  • Pennellini, Sara <1989>


  • ING-IND/29 Ingegneria delle materie prime


  • Wastewater management is an environmental and social burden that primarily affects populations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries and the global environment. Wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse have become urgent, especially considering that 80% of the world's wastewater is untreated or improperly treated and discharged directly into water bodies. In recent years, the role of wastewater treatment plants in a sustainable water cycle has become even more critical, as they are the final destination of the collected wastewater. Indeed, the management of wastewater treatment plants should play an essential role in achieving SDG target 6.3 of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for SD. In this context, water reuse, especially wastewater reuse, plays a key role. This research focuses on investigating the valorization of wastewater resources applying Appropriate Technologies and Natural Systems for wastewater treatment in two different Low- and Middle-Income Countries, the Palestinian Territories and Sub-Saharan Africa. The research objectives are: (1) Determine the characteristics and quality of wastewater in the two case studies analysed. (2) Identify Appropriate Technology to be used in the Palestinian Territories to treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture. (3) Assess the environmental, economic, and social impacts of this project. (4) Assess the feasibility of using natural wetlands for household wastewater treatment in Sub-Saharan region. The first study, conducted in Rafah, Gaza Strip, showed that implementing existing primary treatment plant with a natural secondary treatment plant properly optimized the wastewater quality for reuse in agriculture and was suitable for the study area. The second case study was conducted in Cape Coast, Ghana. It shows that the natural wetland studied is currently overly polluted and threatened by various anthropogenic factors that cannot remove pollutants from the incoming domestic wastewater. Therefore, some recommendations were made in order to improve the efficiency of this natural wetland.


  • 2022-06-16


  • Doctoral Thesis
  • PeerReviewed


  • application/pdf



Pennellini, Sara (2022) Appropriate technologies and natural systems for wastewater treatment in low- and middle-income countries, [Dissertation thesis], Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna. Dottorato di ricerca in Ingegneria civile, chimica, ambientale e dei materiali , 34 Ciclo. DOI 10.48676/unibo/amsdottorato/10372.